I'm going to talk about AI for Large Imperfect Information Games, in particular, on how emitted AI that beat top humans in no-limit poker. Okay. So, for starters, this talk is going to be about imperfect-information games in general. I'm not going to talk about perfect-information games like chess or Go, it will be applicable to poker, but also more generally, any strategic interaction that involves hidden information, for example, security interactions or negotiations. I think this is really important for bringing AI into the real world, because the truth is most real-world strategic interactions involve some amount of hidden information.
So, when it comes to these games, poker has served as the primary benchmark challenge going back decades. In fact, if you look at the original papers on game theory, pretty much the only application they talk about is poker, because it's so accurately, it captures the challenge of hidden information. Particularly, there's a variant of poker called heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em that has emerged as the primary benchmark for these games. A heads-up no-limit Texas hold 'em is a massive game. It has about 10 to the 161 different decision points. It is also the most popular variant of poker in the world https://casinoslots-sa.co.za/casino-games.
For example, no-limit Texas hold'em is the game that is played at The World Series of Poker main events. Every year the winner is determined by Heads of No-limit Texas Hold 'Em. It's also featured in popular movies about poker. For example, Casino Royale and Rounders. In some ways, you could argue it's the purest form of poker.
It's subjective, but it is a very strategic game, whether you win or lose, it's entirely up to your skill. It's not up to the other players at the table, except for your own opponent, I guess. So, there's no kingmaker effects for example, and no pro AI has been able to beat top humans in this game. That isn't till 2017. So, in 2017, we organized something called the Brains vs AI Challenge.
We created an AI called the Libratus, which we played against four of the world's best heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em specialists in the world. These are all people that make about seven figures per year playing this game online. As we played 120,000 hands of poker over the course of 20 days, and there was a $200,000 prize pool divided among the pros to incentivize them to play their best.
So, they weren't risking money, but how much money they want, depended on how well they did relative to the other players. So, obviously, if you're familiar with poker, you might not have heard of these pros. So, I wanted to say a word about how strong these pros are, because it really is important to play against the top players. Unfortunately, there are no objective rankings of professional poker players. But like I said, these are all players that make millions of dollars a year.
In fact, here's a question from the poker subreddit, where somebody was asking, ''How good are these players that we were playing against?'' Somebody responded, ''These players will absolutely trounce all the 2,000 heroes that you might have heard of. The heroes from 2000s would be division three college players.
Well, whereas these guys are all star caliber pros.'' So, this is a pretty accurate description I would say. There is a big scale difference between the a pros that you see on ESPN, and these guys who actually play this game for. The guys you see on ESPN are basically celebrities. These guys are the guys that actually make a living playing this game.
The final result is that Libratus beat the humans in this game by a lot. The victory margin was 147 mbb/game, which is a measurement of win rate and poker, which, unless you are an actual poker player doesn't mean much, but to give you some perspective, this is about three times the win rate of a top pro versus an average pro. It was statistically significant at about four standard deviations, and each human lost individually to the AI. This was a big surprise to everybody. In fact, when we announced the competition, there was a betting market on the outcome, because it's the poker world, and obviously, like to gamble on these things.
When we first announced that we're going to do this competition, the betting odds were four to one against us. In fact, even after we won on the first day, the betting odds were still two to one against us. I think I was until like the third day that the betting odds were even, and by the eighth day, you couldn't even bet on the outcome of the competition anymore. You could just bet on how much each human would lose on each individual day, because it was clear at that point that this AI is going to win.
In fact, even if you asked us, we were not very confident that we would win. I put our odds at about like 60 percent, maybe 65, but I didn't think we would have a lot victories like this. Actually, after this competition, we did another competition against these Chinese pros.
So, basically, somebody called Kai-Fu Lee in China called us and he said, ''We would like you to do another competition in China against Chinese players. We will broadcast it, it would be a lot of fun.'' We were like, ''Well, why should we do this? Because we just played against the top humans.
These Chinese players not as good.'' He said that he would pay us. So, we said, ''Okay, great.'' So, we played 36,000 hands against six Chinese players. We beat them by even more than we beat the top humans in America.
That was actually a huge hit in China. It was watched live by millions of people during that competition. They had really nice production where you could see a poster like this. It was way better than what we did in America. All right. So, why are imperfect-information games so hard?
After all, we have AIs that can beat humans in games like chess, we have AIs that beat humans in Go. In fact, you might have heard recently about AlphaZero which can beat humans. Well, it's essentially superhuman in chess, Go, and shogi, all using the same algorithm. So, what is it about imperfect information games that are so difficult? One of the major challenges, not the only one, but one of the major ones, is that in an imperfect-information game, the optimal strategy for a subgame, for part of the game, cannot be determined in isolation.
It cannot be determined using information in just that subgame alone. So, let me show you what I mean. Before I get to that, deep learning has taken a lot of credit recently for a lot of the breakthroughs in AI. Actually, all AI did not use any deep learning, no deep learning at all.
But I would also argue that a big reason for why all these AIs are superhuman in various games like chess, Go, backgammon even, is because they use real-time planning. The planning component is huge. In AlphaGo, for example, use Monte-Carlo Tree Search, in Deep Blue, it used Alpha-beta pruning. So, in fact, if you look at AlphaZero, without real-time planning, I guess this is washed out, but it ends up being right around there without Monte-Carlo Tree Search during real-time. Top human performance is right around here.
So, in fact, without Monte-Carlo Tree Search, AlphaZero is not superhuman. The tree search gets you 2,000 ELO addition. So, real-time planning is really important, not just in Go, but also in poker, it turns out. This is actually the key breakthrough that allowed us to be top humans is figuring out how to do real-time planning. But it turns out that in poker, it ends up being way harder which is where it gets you right now. So in perfect-information games, you take some action, your opponent takes some action, you find yourself in a particularly subgame.
Now, you can forget about everything that came before, all the other situations you did not encountered. The only thing that matters is the situation that you're in, and the situations that can be reached from this point on. So in perfect-information games, so for example, if I were to show you this chess board, you don't have to know how we ended up in this situation, you don't have to know about the Sicilian defense of the Queen's gambit. You can just look at this board, and if you're white, you can say, ''Okay, well, if I do a search, I can see if I move my white queen there, then it's checkmate, and the game is over. So, I should just do that. You don't have to know anything about the strategy of chess.
But in imperfect-information games, if you take some action, and your opponent takes some action, and you find yourself in a particularly sub-game, now some other sub game that you are not in, and in fact, you might not even be able to reach from this point on, can affect what the optimal strategy is for the sub-game that you are in. This is counter-intuitive, but I'm going to give you a concrete example in a little bit that illustrates this. Now, before I get to that, I want to talk a little bit about what our goal is in these games. Our goal is to find a Nash equilibrium which in-two player zero-sum games, is the same thing as a min-max equilibrium.
I won't get too technical about the definition, but basically, in a two-player zero-sum game, if you're playing the Nash equilibrium, you are guaranteed to not lose an expectation. Now, it's not always easy to find a Nash equilibrium, but it's always guaranteed to exist and a finite two-player zero-sum game. So, for example, in rock, paper, scissors, the Nash equilibrium is to this mix randomly between rock, paper, and scissors, with equal probability, because if you do that, then no matter what your opponent does, you will not lose an expectation.
Now, in rock, paper, scissors, that also means you're not going to win an expectation, but in a complicated game like poker where there's a lot of sub-optimal actions that aren't actually played in the Nash equilibrium, it's likely that your opponent will make mistakes and you will end up in practice winning as well. Yes. >> How important is it going to be to play a game So, if I compare this to say, heads up or not. If I got a heads up, if I got to sort of thinking about like this will go about seven players. >> That is a great question.
So, I'll get to this, let's talk about this now. In poker, it doesn't really matter. So, in poker, if you were to use these same techniques for six player poker, you would almost certainly win. That said in general, poker is a special game because, I don't know if you play poker but two special things about poker.
One is, it's really hard to collaborate with other players. So, you can't say, "Hey, let's team up against this other person at the table." In fact, if you try to do that, that'll be against the rules of poker. The other thing that's unique about poker is that people fold in the game.
So, even if you have six players at the start of the game, it very quickly comes down to two players because people fold. So, you can use these techniques that are only guaranteed for two-player zero-sum games and it will just work in six player poker. But a big challenge is extending these techniques to other games that do allow for collaboration. In that, we don't really have a good approach for those games yet.
Looking for Paralegal Training in your area? Then you will find the article below has some useful suggestions. Choosing the correct Paralegal training education and certification program can be a really tricky decision, but it is good to be prepared, so you can be certain you have chosen the best Paralegal School for you. there is essay help for you online.
Paralegal training was harder to find in the past compared to schools for other careers. All that’s changing now. In fact, many more colleges and universities are offering four-year majors in paralegal studies, as they realize that the careers of paralegals are complex, and many different skills-research skills, computer skills, and a basic grasp of human psychology and sociology-are needed for a paralegal to do the best job possible. There are also plenty of community colleges around the nation offering two-year degrees in paralegal skills, and on top of that there’s a wealth of paralegal training programs available online.P
The paralegal job market is competitive, and if you want to stand out as a more attractive candidate to potential employers, you should consider obtaining paralegal certification. In the legal world, paralegal certification is viewed as an independent, unbiased measurement of your ability as a current or potential paralegal. By obtaining certification, you are proving that you have achieved a nationally standardized level of professional achievement, and that you will be able to provide quality service to future employers
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Women love fake nails. That is just a fact of the modern world. I never used to have any until my husband decided to treat me to them one day. Little did he know that he would be unleashing a never-ending beast. I love my nails, and I’m sure you love yours as well. The problem is taking that love into the workplace, as some places do not like their employees to have elaborate nails in the office. If you work in an environment that frowns upon the use of fake nails, you need to figure out how to get what you want without pissing off your employer. Here are some tips to help you do just that.
Colors That Are Appropriate for Work
In most cases, you cannot go wrong with a simple white tip. I know that may be a little boring, but it will allow you to get fake nails without any complaints from your employer. If you want to jazz up the white tips a bit, you could always get something with a hint of glitter in it, depending on where you work. Most people won’t be able to see that from a distance, but you will know it is there.
Aside from white, you may also get away with wearing a neutral color, like light pink or peach. Some employers also will not mind a common nail color, like red or burgundy. This will depend on the employer though, so you need to ask before you do anything. The last thing you need is to spend $50 on a manicure that you have to get reversed the next day. This is easy to do if you paint your nails, but it sucks if you get powder colors like I do. Keep this in mind as you go about selecting your nail colors.
Colors That Are Not Appropriate for Work
In most instances, bright colors do not work well for the office. They are just too distracting, and they look unprofessional. You may be really tempted to get lime green on one hand and magenta on the other, but you have to avoid doing that for work. You need to focus instead on getting a color that is going to pull the focus away from your nails. You can still have pretty nails without bright colors. They just won’t stand out as much.
Dark colors like black or blood read can sometimes be a problem for employers. This all depends on where you work though, as some places will not care if you come in with dark brown nails on your fingers. You could always ask if you could get a certain color as a subtle line under a white tip because a lot of employers will budge on that. As long as the majority of your nail is white, you should be able to remain professional looking without giving up your personal sense of style.
The Alternative Option
If you cannot see yourself living without bright colors and spunky patterns, get a pedicure that shows off your wild side. You can wear peep toe shoes to work so people can still see your pedicure, but at least this way you will not have all eyes on your nails. If you sit behind a desk all day, your boss may never know about your secret nail colors down below. You will know though, and so will the other people that you talk to for extended periods of time. You can have the best of both worlds if you are willing to compromise. You just have to think creatively.
I would love to say that all you need to get a job is an online degree and a good opportunity. That is not the case though. Sometimes you actually have to use your personality to land a job as well, which may be a challenge if you aren’t used to wooing people without being cheesy. A lot of the jobs that I have earned and maintained were purely the result of my personality. My capabilities as a cv writer played a main role in the positions. If you want to guarantee that you will get a job in the near future, you need to learn how to use charm the right way.
Here are some tips to help you do just that.
A Smile Shows Approachability
If you smile a lot when you are in a job interview, you will show the hiring manager that you are approachable and kind. That will go a long way in helping you get a job because it will show the employer that you can be a good team player. When I say smile, I’m not talking about a creepy, insincere smile – nor am I talking about something that seems forced or unprofessional. You have to just work in a smile when you first shake hands with the person, and any other time you feel that it is fitting and appropriate. Little subtle changes in behavior like this will make a big difference in the impression you leave on your potential employer.
A Sense of Humor Shows Likability
There is nothing wrong with making a joke or two in a job interview as long as they are appropriate for work. You have to say these in the right way too. Otherwise they could come off as disrespectful or even mean. I like to answer with, “I suppoooooose you can do that” when a potential employer asks if he or she can do something with my application. It shows just enough lightheartedness to be likeable without going overboard with humor. This is a delicate balance to master, but it is something that could help you land a job in the future.
Eye Contact Shows Confidence
If you really want to make a good impression on your employer, you need to make eye contact when he or she talks. This will be both charming and enticing at the same time. When you look someone in the eyes, he or she is instantly compelled to talk to you even more. This shows that you are confident in who you are and why you should be chosen for a job. A little bit of eye contact could go a long way in the workforce.
A Flirtatious Personality Shows…
That you’re a bit of a whore. Goodness, that is terrible of me to say, but it is true. If you have to flirt your way to getting a job, you aren’t going to be very respected in the end. You need to be charming without coming across as a flirt. I know the terms may be somewhat interchangeable in the dating world, but they aren’t in the job market. Keep the flirtation in check and try to remain as professional as possible.
You are the only one that can master the charm you need for a job interview. It could definitely help you get a job in the future, but only if you know how to use it. Don’t bat your eyes and assume that you will get a job. You may need a slightly different tactic. Hopefully the tips above will help you find that in the end.
Most people associate starting a business with someone who is in his 30s or 40s. Any age before that is just too young to enter the business world…right? That I can honestly say is the biggest load of crap I have ever heard. My husband is 23 and I am 22. We’ve owned our own business since we were 19 and 20. So far we have had a fantastic run, aside from a few little bumps and bruises at first. You just have to expect that when you start something new though.
If you have plans for starting a business at an early age, you really need to explore them. Don’t stifle your ideas just because someone else has discouraged you from testing the waters. If you never try, you will never know if you could succeed. Here are some general tips I wish I would have known when I started my business. I think I would have been a lot better off with them.
Have a Steady Source of Money
When you first start your business, you need to make sure that you have the money to be able to do so. Most new businesses take six months to a year to start yielding profits, so you need to be prepared for the possibility that you may not make any money at all. Before you tell your boss to screw off, you may want to keep your current job and work on your business on the side. This may not leave much time for the business, but you have to make sure you maintain a source of income no matter what.
You just need to go over your finances and make sure you can pay your bills without the money from the business. It is going to cost you money before it allows you to earn any of it, and you can’t afford to ignore the harsh reality of that.
Research the Industry Carefully
Before you make plans to start your own business, you really need to know what you are getting yourself into. Know about the expected income you can make at first and the overall success rate that most people have in the industry. Compare the costs versus the potential profits and see if you can honestly be happy with what you may make from your business. The numbers and workload may catch you by surprise. A friend of mine started his own welding business and made well over $100,000 a year, but after fees, taxes, and all that fun stuff, he only netted about $30,000. The 72 hours he spent at work a week just wasn’t worth it at that point. You have to do all the research you need to make sure you don’t end up in the same boat.
Make a Plan
If you know that you want to get involved with a certain kind of business, you need to make a clear business plan. This should highlight your expected costs and revenue streams for once to five years, and it should have goals in place that you can follow. With the right plan, you should be able to get start your own business even at a young age. You just have to be passionate and committed from the start.